Let's start the discussion with the symptoms of laptop adapter problem. Random power surges are a common sign that indicates that the AC adapter is failing. In many cases, it is very difficult to detect surges and power spikes. If you come across situation like laptop is not booting up shutting down randomly and abruptly then it might be due to the faulty power adapter. If this happens, you should diagnose and fix it as soon as possible. This is because it may damage the laptop components. What you can do is that run the laptop on battery and check whether the problem persists or not. If your laptop runs properly on the battery, then the cause of the problem is the faulty adapter.
Sometimes, due to 'H' Problems laptop adapter may not function properly. The 'H' problems refer to the 'hardware' or 'physical' problems. If there is any wear, tear, cracks or other physical defects in the transformer on the laptop adapter it may cause the problem. A worn or torn adapter cable may also be the reason. Remember, there might be a fire hazard due to a broken power adapter. The best solution in this regard is to replace the entire adapter. You can consult an online computer repair company for tech support. There are many such service provider that offer round the clock assistance to the computer users for fixing these types of issues.
If the laptop adapter has some fault it might not be able to charge the laptop battery. Even it can reduce the effective battery life of the battery. Power surges created by a faulty adapter may make the battery charge unevenly which is also very harmful for the battery. If you find the battery is charging but can not run the batter for long it could be the result of faulty battery. On the other hand, if you find that the laptop battery is not charging at all, it is the problem of the faulty adapter.