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Overview of a pv Solar Energy System

by:Fuyuang     2019-12-25
To update our basic electrical knowledge, a typical solar photovoltaic electrical system is described.
This knowledge will make us comfortable with the design of our photovoltaic solar system and confident that it has not been over-designed or under-designed.
Photovoltaic solar system: there are four components of photovoltaic solar system. 1)
Solar panels: this is a component that receives photons from the sun and converts photon energy into electrical energy.
The rated power of the panel is Watt. 2)
Charging Controller: this component ensures that the battery is not overcharged and damaged. 3)
Battery: Before we use energy to power the appliance, the battery stores the power we collect.
Our electricity is stored at the potential energy of the rated voltage. 4)
Inverter: this component changes the battery current stored in DC (DC)
To AC (AC)
Compatible with our home appliances.
Sunlight into electricity: Photovoltaic Energy is to convert sunlight into electricity through photovoltaic (pv)
Solar cells, commonly known as solar cells.
Photovoltaic cells are a non-mechanical device usually made of silicon alloys.
Sunlight is made up of photons or particles of solar energy.
These photons contain various energies corresponding to different wavelengths of the solar spectrum.
When photons hit photovoltaic cells, they may be reflected, crossed, or absorbed.
Only the absorbed photons provide energy to generate electricity.
When the sun is full (energy)
Absorbed by materials (Semiconductor)
Electrons are stripped from the atoms of the material.
The special treatment of the surface of the material during the manufacturing process makes it easier for the front surface of the cell to accept free electrons, so the electrons migrate naturally to the surface.
The output of solar panels is usually expressed in watts, which are determined by multiplying the rated voltage by the rated amps.
The formula for the wattage is to multiply the volts of the wattage by the amps.
So let\'s give a 12 volt example.
The rated voltage of the 60-watt solar panel measuring about 20X44 Inch is 17. 1 and 3. 5 amps . V X A = W17. 1 v multiplied by 3.
5 amps equals 60 watts.
Our solar energy panels are rated at 60 watts and are exposed to a peak sun of 6 hours, generating 360 watts of power per day. An typical;
Households will need 4000 Watts of DC power generation to generate enough kilowatt hours to cover annual electricity consumption.
This is equivalent to 67-
As you can see from the above example, the solar panel of 20X44 Inch.
Wiring system: solar panels can be wired in series or in parallel, increasing the number of voltages or Amps respectively, or in series and parallel wiring, increasing the number of voltages and amps.
In-series wiring means connecting the positive terminal of a panel to the negative terminal of the adjacent panel.
This connection will generate a voltage, and as the sum of the two panels, the number of amps will remain the same as the output panel.
2 12 volts and 3.
The 5 amp panels in series will generate a 24 V voltage at 3. 5 amps.
Solar panels can be wired in parallel by connecting positive terminals to positive terminals, connecting negative terminals to negative terminals.
12 V and 3 v.
The 5 amps panel connected in parallel will produce 12 volts and 7 amps.
The series/parallel wired system refers to the simultaneous operation of the above two.
This wiring scheme will produce 24 volts and 7 amps from our two 12 volts and 3 volts. 5 amps panels.
Inverter: the inverter is a device that converts a DC power supply stored in the battery pack to a standard 110/240 v ac power supply.
Almost all of our lighting, electrical appliances and motors are designed with AC power.
The inverter has a sine wave and an improved sine wave output.
Most 11o V devices can use the modified sine wave output.
However, special equipment that uses a laser or silicon-controlled rectifier will require a more expensive Pure Sine inverter.
The automatic conversion switch is a common internal function that can switch from one AC power supply to another AC power source or from a utility power supply to an inverter power supply for the specified load.
Provides battery temperature compensation, internal relays for controlling loads, automatic remote generator start-up and stop, and many other programmable functions.
Charging Controller: the charging controller monitors the charging status of the battery to ensure that the battery needs current when needed and that the battery does not overcharge.
Connecting the solar panel to the battery without a charging controller can seriously damage the battery and can cause safety problems.
The rated current of the charging controller is based on the amount of amps they can generate from the solar cell array.
If the rated power of the controller is 20 am ps, you can connect the solar panel current output up to 20 am ps.
Advanced charge controllers utilize pulsesWidth-
Modulation ensures the highest efficiency of battery charging and extends battery life.
More advanced controllers can include maximum power point tracking to maximize the battery\'s electrical flow by reducing the output voltage of the panel.
Many advanced charging controllers provide low voltage disconnection and battery temperature compensation as optional functions.
Low voltage disconnection allows terminals to be sensitive to voltage.
If the battery voltage drops too far, the panel is disconnected to prevent damage to the battery.
Battery temperature compensation adjusts the charging rate according to the temperature of the battery, because the battery is sensitive to temperature changes above and below 75 degrees F.
Battery: the battery of our system should be a deep cycle unit designed to discharge and then charge hundreds or thousands of times.
The rated current of the battery is Amp Hours (ah)
Rating is usually done in 20 hours or 100 hours.
AMPS hours refer to the amount of electricity that the battery can provide in a few hours.
A 350 ah battery can provide an example of 17.
5 amps in a row for 20 hours.
As with solar panels, the battery is connected in series and/or in parallel to raise the voltage to the desired level and increase the amp time.
The capacity of the battery ampere hour capacity needs to be carefully adjusted according to the conditions considered.
The conditions considered include the maximum time without sun or cloudy conditions, the availability of a generator or power grid backup or a backup generator with a battery charger.
The size of the battery pack will depend on the required storage capacity, the maximum discharge rate, the maximum charge rate, and the minimum temperature to use the battery.
Overall design: as with all electrical systems, there is a loss of voltage as power is transmitted through wires, batteries and inverters, depending on the efficiency of each component.
These efficiency losses vary from component to system, up to 25%.
To be more efficient, a trained technician is needed to fine tune the system.
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